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John Baily originally studied psychology and physiology at Oxford University 1962-65. In 1970 he gained a doctorate in experimental psychology at the University of Sussex for research on human spatial orientation, sensori-motor coordination, and motor control. In 1973 he began his long association with anthropologist and ethnomusicologist John Blacking at The Queen's University of Belfast, with research on the relationship between human movement and music structure. Supported by an SSRC Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship, he carried out a year's fieldwork on long-necked lutes in the city of Herat, in western Afghanistan. The local instrument, called dutār (meaning literally "two strings"), had undergone dramatic morphological transformations between 1950 and 1965, and these were studied in terms of the (changing) morphology of the instrument, the patterns of movement used to play it, and the structure of the music produced. This research showed how particular kinds of music are adapted to the spatial layouts of certain instruments, and suggested that musical cognition may involve thinking in movement, rather than simply in terms of sound.
In 1976 John Baily returned to Afghanistan for a second year of fieldwork, this time on the anthropology of music in Herat (leading eventually to a doctorate in social anthropology from Queen's University Belfast, 1988). After a year as a Senior Associate Member in the Middle East Centre of St Antony's College, Oxford, he was appointed Lecturer in Ethnomusicology at Queen's University Belfast. In 1984 he was awarded a Leverhulme Film Training Fellowship by the Royal Anthropological Institute at the National Film and Television School, and directed two feature-length 16mm documentary films, Amir: An Afghan Refugee Musician's Life in Peshawar, Pakistan, and Lessons from Gulam: Asian Music in Bradford. In 1988, after two years as a Visiting Research Fellow in the School for African and Asian Studies at the University of Sussex, he was appointed Associate Professor in the Center for Ethnomusicology at Columbia University, New York. In 1990 he moved to Goldsmiths College, University of London, where he is now Reader in Ethnomusicology.
As a musician John Baily has been playing the Afghan lutes the dutur and the rubub for the last 25 years and is acclaimed by Afghans as a performer of their traditional music. He has published widely on the music of Afghanistan, including several CDs of field and studio recordings of Afghan music. His other main research interests are musical cognition, music and the human body, ethnomusicological film making, and music in the South Asian communities in the UK.
John Baily leads the teaching of ethnomusicology at Goldsmiths College. The MMus in Ethnomusicology emphasises theory and practice, and is orientated towards the approaches pioneered by John Blacking. Doctoral students under his supervision are working on a variety of topics, including: Iraqi Jewish women's music in Israel; Goralé string band music of the Tatra Mountains, Poland; classically trained professional musicians in London; singers' representations of vocalisation in opera, jazz and folk genres; salsa in London; pipe and tabor music and dance in the Basque country; "neo-rembetika" in Saloniki; and the gombaz in Malaysia.
JOHN BAILYS PUBLICATIONS
(1) BOOKS AND BOOKLETS
1974 Krishna Govinda's Rudiments of Tabla Playing. Brighton: Unicorn Books. With accompanying audio cassette. 89 pages. ISBN 0-85659-018-5.
1988 Music of Afghanistan: Professional musicians in the city of Herat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. With accompanying audio cassette. 183 pages. ISBN 0-521-25000-5.
1990a The making of "Amir: An Afghan Refugee Musician's Life in Peshawar, Pakistan". A Study Guide to the Film. Boston: Documentary Educational Resources. 36 pages. No number.
1990b The making of "Lessons from Gulam: Asian Music in Bradford". A Study Guide to the Film. Boston: Documentary Educational Resources. 38 pages. No number.
1994 John Blacking: Dialogue with the Ancestors, The John Blacking Memorial Lecture, European Seminar in Ethnomusicology, Geneva, 1991. London: Goldsmiths College. 20 pages. ISBN 0-901542-75-x.
1999 The Gujarati Muslim Khalifa Jamat of the UK. Limited edition published by Goldsmiths. 150 pages. No number.
2001 "Can you stop the birds singing?" The censorship of music in Afghanistan. Copenhagen: Freemuse. With accompanying CD. 52 pages, also available on <http://www.freemuse.org>www.freemuse.org. ISSN 1601-2127. Reprinted 2003, 2003.
Baily, John, and Andree Grau
2001 Domba 1956-1958. A personal record of Venda initiation rites, songs & dances. Study guide to John Blackings film of that title. Bloomington: Society for Ethnomusicology. 47 pages. ISBN 0-9707151-5-3.
(2) CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
1977 "Movement patterns in playing the Herati dutār", in John Blacking (ed),
The Anthropology of the Body, London: Academic Press, 275-330. ISBN 77-71793.
1981a "Cross-cultural perspectives in popular music: the case of Afghanistan", in Richard Middleton and David Horn (eds), Popular Music 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 105-122. ISSN 0261-1430.
1981b "Music and Religion in Herat", in Daniel Heartz and Bonnie Wade (eds), IMS 1981. Report on the Twelfth Congress Berkeley 1977, Kassell:Barenreiter, 387-389. ISBN 3-7618-0649-3.
1983 Section on "Music" in L.P .Elwell-Sutton (ed), Bibliographical Guide to Iran, Brighton: Harvester Press, 334-340. ISBN 0-12-357170-7.
1985 "Music structure and human movement", in Peter Howell, Ian Cross and Robert West (eds)., Musical Structure and Cognition, London: Academic Press, 237-258. ISBN 2-85297-203-4. Reprinted as "Struttura musicale e movimento umano", in Tullia Magrini (ed) Uomini e Suoni. Prospettive antropologiche nella ricerca musicale. Bologna: Cooperativa Libraria Universitaria Editrice Bologna. 1995:183-212.
1987 "Principes d'improvisation rythmique dans le jeu du rubāb d'Afghanistan", in L'Improvisation dans les musiques de tradition orale, Bernard Lortat-Jacob (ed), Paris: SELAF, 175-188. ISBN 2-8257-0159-9. English version of this paper published as "Principles of Rhythmic Improvisation for the Afghan Rubāb" in International Council for Traditional Music UK Chapter Bulletin, 1989:3-16. No ISSN number.
Baily, John, and Veronica Doubleday
1988 "Modeles d'impregnation musicale en Afghanistan", in Laurent Aubert (ed), Cahiers de musiques traditionelles 1: De bouche a oreille, Geneva: Ateliers d'ethnomusicologie, 112-124. ISBN 2-8257-0159-9. English version published 1989 as "Patterns of musical enculturation in Afghanistan", in Frank Wilson and Franz Roehmann (eds), Music and Child Development: Proceedings of the 1987 Denver Conference. St. Louis: MMB Music, 88-99. ISBN 0-918812-58-5
1989 "The role of a motor grammar in the performance of music", in Frank Wilson and Franz Roehmann (eds), Music and Child Development: Proceedings of the 1987 Denver Conference. St. Louis: MMB Music, 202-213. ISBN 0-918812-58-5
1990 "Traditional music in the Muslim communities: Qawwali in Bradford", in Paul Oliver (ed), Black Music in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 156-169. ISBN 0-335-15297-x.
1991a "Jüüzli du Muotatal, quatre films de Hugo Zemp", in Laurent Aubert (ed) Cahiers de musiques traditionelles 4: Voix,. Geneva: Ateliers d'ethnomusicologie, 304-312. ISBN 2-8257-0431-8.
1991b "Musical change in Herat in the twentieth century", in Shirin Akiner (ed), Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. London: Kegan Paul International, 258-269. ISBN 0-7103-0351-3.
1992a "Music Performance, Motor Structure, and Cognitive Models", in Max Peter Baumann, Artur Simon and Ulrich Wegner (eds), European Studies in Ethnomusicology: Historical Developments and Recent Trends. . Berlin: International Institute for Comparative Music Studies and Documentation, 142-158. ISBN 3-7959-0652-0.
1992b "Maqāms, dastgāhs and rāgs in Western Afghanistan", in Jurgen Elsner (ed), Proceedings of the Second Conference of Study Group Maqām, Berlin 1992. Berlin: Herausgegben von Jurgen Elsner und Gisa Jahnichen, 51-74. No ISBN number.
1994a "The role of music in the creation of an Afghan national identity, 1923-73", in Martin Stokes (ed), Music, Ethnicity and Identity. The Musical Construction of Place. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 45-60. ISBN 0-85496-877-6.
1994b "Learning to perform as a research technique in ethnomusicology", in Kyo-Chul Chung and Uwe Pätzold (eds), Lux Oriente - Encounters of Cultures in Scientific Musical Research. A feschrift for Robert Günther, Cologne: University of Cologne, 331-347. ISBN 3-7649-2620-1.
Doubleday, Veronica and John Baily
1995 "Patterns of musical development among children in Afghanistan", in Elizabeth Warnock Fernea (ed), Children in the Muslim Middle East Today. Austin: Texas University Press, 431-446. ISBN 0-292-72490-x.
1998 "Discourse sur la musique ą Herat (Afghanistan)", in Laurent Aubert (ed), Cahiers d'ethnomusicologie 11: Paroles de musiciens. Geneva: Ateliers d'ethnomusicologie, 125-140. ISBN 2-8257-0639-6.
2000 "Music and the State", in Alison Arnold (ed), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume 5. South Asia. The Indian Subcontinent . New York: Garland, 804-811. ISBN 0-8240-4962-2.
2000 "Western Afghanistan", in Alison Arnold (ed), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume 5. South Asia. The Indian Subcontinent. New York:Garland, 817-824. ISBN 0-8240-4962-2.
Misdaq, Nabi, and John Baily
2000 "Southeastern Afghanistan", in Alison Arnold (ed), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume 5. South Asia. The Indian Subcontinent . New York: Garland, 833-841. ISBN 0-8240-4962-2.
2001 "L'interaction homme/instrument. Vers une conceptualisation", in Laurent Aubert (ed)Cahiers de musiques traditionelles 14: Le geste musical. Geneva: Ateliers d'ethnomusicologie, 125-141. ISBN 2-8257-0761-9.
2004 "Music censorship in Afghanistan before and after the Taliban", in Marie Korpe (ed), Shoot the singer! Music censorship today. London: Zed Books, 19-28. ISBN 1-84227-5057.
2005 "Music Theory in Oral Traditions', to be published in Italian in Enciclopedia della Musica, vol. V, "L'unita della musica", a cura di Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Torino, Einaudi, forthcoming October 2005, and in French "La theorie de la musique dans les cultures de trzdition orale", Musiques. Une encyclopedie pour le XXIe siecle, vol. III, "Musiques et cultures", sous la direction de Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Arles, Actes Sud / Cite de la musique, forthcoming September 2005.
ARTICLES IN REFEREED JOURNALS
Baily, John S., and George Singer
1967 "Behavioural compensation through false information feedback and transformed visual input", Australian Journal of Psychology, 19:49-53. ISSN 0004-9530
1972a "Adaptation to prisms: Do proprioceptive changes mediate adapted behaviour with ballistic arm movements?", Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24:8-20. ISSN 0272-4987.
1972b "Arm-body adaptation with passive arm movements", Perception and Psychophysics, 12:39-44. ISSN 0031-5117.
1976 "Recent changes in the dutār of Herat", Asian Music, 8(1):29-64. ISSN 0044-9202. Reprinted in K.Shelemay (ed), The Garland Library of Readings in Ethnomusicology. Volume 6. Musical Processes, Resources and Technologies. New York: Garland. 1990, 223-258. ISBN 0-8240-6474-7.
Baily, John, and John Blacking
1978 "Research on the Herati Dutār", Current Anthropology, 19:610-611. ISSN 0011-3204.
1979 "Professional and amateur musicians in Afghanistan", World of Music, 21(2):46-64. ISSN 0043-8774.
1980 "A description of the naqqarakhana of Herat", Asian Music, 11(2):1-10. ISSN 0044-9202.
1981 "A system of modes used in the urban music of Afghanistan", Ethnomusicology, XXV(1):1?]39. ISSN 0014-1836.
1988a "Amin-e Diwaneh: The musician as madman", Popular Music, 7(2):131-146. ISSN 0261-1430.
1988b "Anthropological and psychological approaches to the study of music theory and musical cognition", Yearbook for Traditional Music, 20:114-124. ISSN 0740-1558.
1989 "Film making as musical ethnography", World of Music, special issue on Film and Video in Ethnomusicology, XXXI(3):3-20. ISSN 0043-8774.
1991 "Some cognitive aspects of motor planning in musical performance", Psychologica Belgica, XXXI(2):147-162. ISSN 0033-2879.
Baily, John, and Peter Driver
1992 "Spatio-motor thinking in playing folk blues guitar", World of Music, special issue on Ethnomusicology and Music Cognition, guest editor Ellen Koskoff , 34(3):57-71. ISSN 0043-8774.
1995a "The Role of Music in Three British Muslim communities", Diaspora, 4(1):77-87. ISSN 0740-1558.
1995b "Music and the Body", World of Music, special issue on Working with Blacking: The Belfast Years, guest editor John Baily, 37(2):11-30. ISSN 0043-8774.
1996 "Using Tests of Sound Perception in Fieldwork", Yearbook for Traditional Music, 28:147-173. ISSN 0740-1558.
1997a "Afghan perceptions of birdsong", World of Music, special issue on Cultural Concepts of Hearing and Listening, 39(2): 51-59. ISSN 0043-8774.
1997b "Investigating inter-cultural music perception: Messiaen's 'Le Loriot' and Afghan reception of birdsong", Proceedings of the Music Studies and Cultural Difference Conference, Open University, July 1997. Text and audio examples at <http:/www.open.ac.uk/OU/Academic/Arts/music/mscd/mscd1.htm1>MailScanner has detected a possible fraud attempt from "http:" claiming to be http:/www.open.ac.uk/OU/Academic/Arts/music/mscd/mscd1.htm1.
1997c "The naghma-ye kashāl of Afghanistan", British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 6:117-163. ISSN 0968-1221.
1999 "Music and refugee lives: Afghans in eastern Iran and California", Forced Migration Review, 6:10-13. ISSN 1460-9819.
2001 "Learning to perform as a research technique in ethnomusicology", British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 10(2):85-98. ISSN 0968-1221.
2003 Learning to perform as a research technique in ethnomusicology, British Journal of Ethnomusicology, 10(2):85-98. ISSN 0968-1221.
In Press "So near, so far: Kabul's music in exile", Ethnomusicology Forum (previously the British Journal of Ethnomusicology), published by Routledge.
In Press Music Is In Our Blood: Gujarati Muslim Musicians in the UK, Journal for Ethnic and Migration Studies
John Baily and Michael Collyer
In Press "Introduction: Music and Migration", an introduction to a collection of papers on music and migration to be published in a special issue of Journal for Ethnic and Migration Studies, published by the University of Sussex.
1988 Report on 7th ICTM Colloquium "Methods and Techniques of Film and Videorecording in Ethnomusicological Research", Yearbook for Traditional Music, 20:193-198. ISSN 0740-1558.
1990a "John Blacking", Anthropology Today, 6(2):20-21. ISSN 0268-540x
1990b "John Blacking and his place in Ethnomusicology", Yearbook for Traditional Music, 22:xii-xxi. ISSN 0740-1558.
1991 Contribution to "John Blacking - Reminiscences", Popular Music, 10(2):219-229. ISSN 0261-1430.
1991 "Afghanistan", in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart Allgemeine Enzyklpadie der Musik Volume 1. Ludwig Finscher (ed). Kassell: Barenreiter. Pp 42-49. ISBN 3-7618-1102-0.
2000a "Bring Back the Rubab", Afghanistan Reflections, 1:12-15. No ISSN number.
2000b Articles in Stanley Sadie (ed),The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd edition), on "Afghanistan", "Dutar", "Rabab", "Tanbur", "Ustad Mohammad Omar", "Ustad Sarahang" "Mahwash", "Khyal", "Ahmad Zahir", "Ustad Kasem", "Ustad" and "John Blacking". ISBN 0-333-60800-3.
2001a "Censorship of music in Afghanistan", Songlines, 11:29-30. ISSN 1464-8113.
2001b "The prohibition of music in Afghanistan", Avidi Lumi. Quadrimestrale di Culture Musicali del Teatro Massimo di Palermo. Numero 13, 70-71. (Versions in Italian, 3-7, and Arabic, 123-122). ISSN 1126-4659.
2002 "Afghan women's domestic music under the Taliban", Avidi Lumi. Quadrimestrale di Culture Musicali del Teatro Massimo di Palermo. Numero 15, 70-71. (Versions in Italian, 3-7, and Arabic, 113-115). ISSN 1126-4659.
2003-04 "Old Songs in a Rough Landscape. Music in Afghanistan Before the War", Art & Thought, 78:44-47.
(3) VIDEOS AND FILMS
1985 Amir: An Afghan refugee musician's life in Peshawar, Pakistan, 16mm, 52 mins., RAI Film Archive. Screened at Festival of Ethnographic Film, London 1985; Bilan Ethnographique, Paris 1986; Edinburgh Film Festival, 1986; London Film Festival, 1986; Festival dei Popoli, Florence 1986; 4e Festival du film des musiques du monde, Geneva 1987; Festival of Ethnographic Film, Manchester 1987; National Film Theatre, London 1987; ICTM Colloquium, Czechoslovakia 1988; Margaret Mead Film Festival, New York 1988; Panel on the Future of Afghanistan, University of Utah, 1989; Society for Ethnomusicology annual conference, Boston 1989. Association of American Anthropologists annual conference, Washington, 1989; Middle East Studies Association annual conference, Toronto, 1989; British Forum for Ethomusicology annual conference, the Irish World Music Centre, University of Limerick, 1997; IX Rassegna Internazionale di Documentari Etnografica at the Instituto Superiore Regionale Etnografico, Nuoro, Sardinia, 1998; V Congreso de la Sociedad Iberica de Etnomusicologia, Renteria, Pais Vasco, Spain, 1999; IIIrd Film South Asia Festival, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2001; Forum d'Anthropologie Visually 2002, Geneva; RAI Afghanistan: The Background. A Day of Ethnographic Films on the Peoples of Afghanistan, Brunei Gallery, London, 2002.
1986 Lessons from Gulam: Asian music in Bradford, 16mm, 52 mins., RAI Film Archive. Screened at 4e Festival du Film des musiques du monde, Geneva 1987; Festival of Ethnographic Film, Manchester 1987; National Film Theatre, London 1987; ICTM Colloquium, Czechoslovakia 1988; Association of American Anthropologists annual conference, Washington, 1989; Middle East Studies Association annual conference, Toronto, 1989.
1998 The Herat Films, three videos made by John Baily, shot in the 1970s, edited in the 1980s: The City of Herat (30 mins), The Annual Cycle of Music in Herat (55 mins), and The Shrines of Herat (30 mins), London: Royal Anthropological Institute.
1995 Ustad Mohammad Rahim Khushnawaz (video, 90 mins) and Herat: A portrait of the city (video, 120 Mins). Unpublished films.
2000 Music in exile (video, 90 mins). Unpublished film.
2003 A Kabul Music Diary, DVD, 52 Mins., London: Goldsmiths.
2005 Tablas and Drum Machines: Afghan music in California. (video, 58 minutes).
(4) AUDIO RECORDINGS
1990 Music of Afghanistan. Aziz Herawi. Concerts recorded in New York, audio cassette, with extensive notes by John Baily. New York: World Music Institute.
1992 Afghanistan. Nashenas: Classical ghazals and Afghanistan. Amir Jan Herawi: Afghan rubāb. Two audio cassettes produced by UNHCR and Lok Virsa, musical director John Baily. Islamabad: Lok Virsa.
1993 Afghanistan. The rubāb of Herat. Played by Mohammad Rahim Khushnawaz. CD of field recordings made in 1974 by John Baily. Geneva: Archives internationales de musique populaire.
1995 Afghanistan. Rubāb et Dutār. Ustād Mohammad Rahim Khushnāwāz et Gada Mohammad. CD recorded under the direction of John Baily by OCORA, Radio France, Paris. Ocora C 560080.
1996 The Traditional Music of Herat. CD of field recordings made in 1974 by John Baily and Veronica Doubleday. Paris: UNESCO-ICTM (International Council of Traditional Music). With extensive notes by John Baily. Auvidis 8266.
2000 From Cabool to California. John Baily and Ustad Asif. CD recorded at Studio Nine, Pomona, California. John Baily, Afghan rubab; Ustad Mohammad Asif Mahmood Chishti, tabla; John Harrelson, tanbura. Bolbol CD 01.
2001 Heart to Heart. Veronica Doubleday. CD of recordings made by John Baily, Brighton. Veronica Doubleday, voice and daireh. Bolbol CD 02.
2002 Ensemble Bakhtar. Music from Afghanistan. CD of concert in Teatro Massimo, Palermo, Italy on 22 February 2002. John Baily, leader, rubab and dutar. FTM004.
2003 The Light Garden. CD of music by Sadie Harrison: performances of traditional Afghan songs and instrumental music by Ensemble Bakhtar. John Baily, leader, rubab and dutar. Metier MSV CD 92084.
2005 Sweet Nomad Girl. Folk Music from Afghanistan. Compact Disc, 62 minutes. Abdul Wahab Madadi, voice; Veronica Doubleday, voice and daireh (frame drum); John Baily, 2, 3 and 14 stringed Herati dutars. MetierWorld MW 360-01.
Music Dept., Goldsmiths, University of London
New Cross, London SE14 6NU
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